Water is one of the most valuable resources on Earth today. More than 95% of Earth’s water supply is found in oceans, which makes it unfit for drinking. Add to this, manmade pollution and contamination of the already limited resources. The value of water is only going to increase in the future with its limited supply and sky-rocketing demand.
Water has to be treated to make it fit for use by humans, be it for drinking, household or irrigation purposes. There are a number of Water Treatment Systems commonly in use, which ensures that water is fit for human consumption. Some of everyday Water Treatment Techniques used in household include distillation, boiling, sedimentation, chemical disinfection etc. But there are more complex mechanisms in use today which are much more effective. Some of them are:
- Ozone Water Treatment – Ozone is a naturally occurring gas which is used in these Water Treatment Systems. In Big Water Treatment Plants, this gas is artificially produced on a large scale to treat water. Ozone helps to purify the water by getting rid of contaminants like bacteria, viruses and mold. It also helps get rid of odors and tastes in water. But Ozone Plants require a high cost of operation. Also, for this treatment to work effectively, water needs to be treated with a minimum dosage of ozone in a proportionate quantity.
- Ultraviolet Treatment – In this system, the water is treated with ultraviolet radiation to rid it of any biological micro-organisms. There is a lamp which emits ultra-violet radiation and thus getting the water cleaned of any contamination. The lamp does not come in direct contact with the water; it is kept in a waterproof tube inside the container. This is very cost-effective and efficient way of Water Treatment. One of the major drawbacks of this Water Treatment Technique is that it does not have any effect on the dissolved chemicals in the water.
- Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment – In this kind of Water Treatment System, osmosis in its reverse form is used to filter the contaminants out of the water, hence the name. But in this case external pressure has to be applied to the water to push it through the membrane. The membrane filters all the contaminants making RO Filters a common form of water treatment technique used at home and elsewhere. But one drawback associated with RO filters is that it rids the water of useful minerals.
The bottom line is that Water Treatment Systems are necessary for a healthy, safe society.